Despite widespread acceptance and clinical use of the Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS) in orthopedics and sports medicine, few. ANTERIOR KNEE PAIN SCALE (AKPS) – KUJALA. Age Min: 11; Age Max: ; Questions: 13; Language and Cultural Adaptations: N/A; Anatomic Region: Knee . PDF | To translate and validate the Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS) in patients who have undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or.
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Conceived and designed the experiments: Despite widespread acceptance and clinical use of the Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale AKPS in orthopedics and sports medicine, few studies have reported on its reliability and no such studies have concentrated on child or adolescent samples exclusively, segments of the population for which this instrument is often used.
The purpose of the current study was to describe and report on the reliability and validity of the AKPS for use with high school female athletes participating in interscholastic athletics. The study was a secondary analysis of prospective epidemiologic data using established scale validation methods.
The records of female athletes Four different approaches to scoring and scale reduction of the AKPS were evaluated, including the original, ordinal item form, a modified, ordinal 6-item form, a modified, dichotomous item form, and a modified, dichotomous 6-item form.
Three different types of reliability internal consistency, equivalence across forms, standard error of measurement and one type of validity criterion-related were estimated for the AKPS in the current sample.
The Kujala AKPS is a valid and reliable measure of anterior knee pain and appropriate for use as an epidemiologic screening tool with adolescent female athletes.
Within the fields of orthopedics and sports medicine, the Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale AKPS [ 1 ], has been widely used to identify and study the prevalence of patellofemoral knee pain.
However, despite its widespread acceptance clinically, relatively few studies have reported on its technical properties with pediatric patients. Only two studies have focused on the measurement properties of patellofemoral pain instruments, in general [ 23 ], and only one study has focused on the technical properties of the AKPS, specifically [ 4 ].
Whereas Bennel et al. No studies to date appear to have taken a comprehensive view of reliability assessment and none has been conducted using pediatric or adolescent samples. Even the two studies that used translations into other languages were done using adult groups and with specific disease states [ 56 ].
This lack of evidence regarding the AKPS in the professional literature, and its potential to provide clinicians with specific reliability information on the symptomatic evaluation of anterior knee pain in large samples of adolescents leaves an important gap in the pediatric sports medicine literature.
Consequently, the purpose of this study was to describe and report on the reliability and validity of the AKPS with adolescent female athletes participating in interscholastic athletics.
The records of adolescent girls The study was designed to assess patellofemoral pain in a diverse, non-clinical sample of adolescent female athletes who participated in three interscholastic sports programs, namely basketball, soccer, and volleyball, within a single school district in rural Kentucky 3.
See Myer et al. Participants 18 years of age and older signed an adult written consent form. The Kujala AKPS [ 1 ] is a item screening instrument designed to assess patellofemoral pain in adolescents and young adults, with a variable ordinal response format.
Total scores range from 0 to Three different sets of reliability estimates were computed for the AKPS for the entire sample of research participants: Second, Spearman-rho correlation coefficients were used to estimate the equivalence of scales between the 6-item brief forms with their longer, item forms.
Third, standard error of measurement SEM values were calculated for each set of scores, with SEM defined as the likelihood of a score to vary about its true mean, and calculated as follows: Traditional test-retest reliability analyses were not deemed appropriate given the changing nature of the samples with respect to injuries, the length and complexity of seasons with respect to additional sports and activities, as well as the restricted nature of the scores for segments of the sample e.
Throughout all analyses described here, the original item long form of the AKPS was evaluated as well as the 6-item short form identified by Myer et al. All analyses were descriptive in nature, used a pre-specified statistical analysis plan approved by the entire team, and computed using SAS v9.
Measures of internal consistency were computed for both the item long form as well as the 6-item short form for both ordinal and dichotomously recoded response option formats: Variability associated with the errors of test scores was computed as follows: The dichotomously scored items manifested identical classification rates to those of the ordinal response format.
Among athletes who changed state over the course of the season healthy to injured or injured to healthythe AKPS appeared to over-estimate the number of healthy athletes with knee pain false positive more often than it injured athletes as healthy false-negative. The Kujala AKPS, is a well-recognized and highly respected instrument used within the fields of orthopedics and sports medicine. Less well developed, however, is the psychometric foundation on which the instrument is based.
The purpose of this study was to describe and report on the reliability and validity of the AKPS using both the original item form and a more concise 6-item form among a sample of high-school female athletes. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency, equivalence across forms, and standard error of measurement; validity was evaluated using percent correct classification rates at both pre- and post-season evaluations.
However, the instrument did have a tendency to overestimate the number of athletes who were injured more so than it did the number of athletes where were healthy, which is indeed preferable in a clinical, epidemiologic study as this one. Whereas the 6-item form had identical classification rates to the item form, one may be able to screen at similar accuracy and reliability levels with the shorter form, thereby saving valuable time for clinical care and intervention.
In the case of a prospective epidemiologic study, when spread over thousands of athletes, this could mean a tremendous savings to the athletes, the clinicians, and medical and educational systems more broadly. Shorter instruments with identical psychometric properties can offer clinicians and researchers tremendous advantages, which may include significantly increased study recruitment and decreased study dropout.
The current study is not without limitations. The AKPS was initially designed for use in clinical settings with symptomatic knee pain patients.
The current project was part of a prospective, epidemiologic investigation that included a population of healthy, asymptomatic, and minimally symptomatic study participants. However, the extent to which these findings generalize to athletes of other sports, in other grade levels, or in other U. The analyses performed here were performed with modifications to the scoring system after the instrument had been administered.
It will be important for additional research to be conducted with this instrument, to administer the scale in its various forms to the athletes prior to additional use, and to athletes representing broader segments of the U. Current AKPS data using the reduced 6-item form appears to offer highly similar reliability indices to the original but longer item form when either the ordinal or the dichotomized response option formats are considered.
More research is needed to confirm these findings across ages, sexes and various activity levels. It is also recommended that new studies be conducted in which the different formats are presented to the athletes and scored using the modified forms presented here, to know with increased certainty how the different scales perform in the reduced or simplified states. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Published online Jul Barber Foss3 Timothy E.
Free online Kujala (Anterior Knee Pain Scale) score calculator
Hewett4 and Gregory D. Wcale 2, 3, 5, 6, 7. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Mar 14; Accepted Jun 1.
ANTERIOR KNEE PAIN SCALE (AKPS) – KUJALA | Pediatric Research in Sports Medicine Society (PRiSM)
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Introduction Within the fields of orthopedics and sports medicine, the Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale AKPS [ 1 ], has been widely used to identify and study the prevalence of patellofemoral knee pain. Materials and Methods Sample The records of adolescent girls Instrument The Kujala AKPS [ 1 ] is a item screening instrument designed to assess patellofemoral pain in adolescents and young adults, with a variable ordinal response format.
Statistical Analyses Three different sets of reliability estimates were computed for the AKPS for the entire sample of research participants: Results Internal Consistency Measures of internal consistency were computed for both the item long form as well as the 6-item short form for both ordinal and dichotomously recoded response option formats: Open in a separate window. Standard error of measurement SEM Variability associated with the errors of test scores was computed as follows: Discussion The Kujala AKPS, is a well-recognized and highly respected instrument used within the fields of orthopedics and sports medicine.
Conclusion Current AKPS data using the reduced 6-item form appears to offer highly similar reliability indices to the original but longer item form when either the ordinal or the dichotomized response option formats are considered.
XLS Click here for additional data file. Data Availability All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Scoring of patellofemoral disorders.
Analysis of outcome measures for persons with patellofemoral pain: Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. Outcome measures in patellofemoral pain syndrome: Physical Therapy in Sport.
Chinese translation and validation of the Kujala scale for patients with patellofemoral pain. Dutch translation of the Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale and validation in patients after knee arthroplasty.
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. Analysis of patient-reported anterior mujala pain scale: Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy: Support Center Support Center.