1 This specification is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee F on. Fasteners and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee F on Steel Bolts. ASTM F defines Standards for manufacturing Bolts,Studs,Screws for general engineering uses. ASTM F STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR CARBON AND ALLOY STEEL EXTERNALLY THREADED METRIC FASTENERS.

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It defines mechanical properties for fasteners that range from M1. The standard was withdrawn in This standard defines property classes, the metric equivalent of a screw grade, that are almost identical to those defined by ISO[2] except for the addition of the 8. These two additional standards are fasteners that have the same mechanical properties as their base property class i. This is axtm standard set by the standards organization ASTM Internationala voluntary standards development organization that sets technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services.

Mechanical properties Head markings and mechanic It defines mechanical properties for sizes M12— A and A heavy hex structural bolts are now grades under the new F specification. Standard designations usually consist of a letter prefix and a sequentially assigned number.

This may optionally be followed by a dash and the last two digits of the year in which the standard was adopted. Prefix letters correspond to the following f568j A withdrawn standard has been discontinued by its sponsoring committee. A standard may be withdrawn with or without replacement. A slip critical connection. A bearing type connection where the threads are on the shear plane. A bearing type connection where the threads are not on the shear plane.

Mechanical properties These bolts are equivalent to ASTM A bolts in application and geometry, but are made to a higher strength. The imperial grades are m ISO is an international standard that defines mechanical and physical properties for metric fasteners.


Bolts, screws and studs with specified property classes — Coarse thread and fine pitch thread[2] 2. Nuts with specified proof load values — Coarse thread[3] 5. Set screws and similar threaded fasteners not under tensile stresses[4] 6. Nuts with specified proof load values — Fine pitch thread[5] 7. The standards do not cover fasteners Nut and bolt A bolt is a form of atm fastener with an external male thread. Bolts are closely related to screws. There are several practical differences, but most have some degree of overlap between bolts and screws.

The defining distinction, per Machinery’s Handbook,[2] is in their intended purpose: Bolts are for the assembly of two unthreaded components, with the aid of a nut.

ASTM FM – Wikipedia

Screws in contrast are used in components which f586m their own thread, and the screw may even cut its own internal thread into them. Many threaded fasteners can be described as either screws or bolts, depending on how they are used.

Bolts are often used to make astj bolted joint. This is a combination of the nut applying an axial clamping force and also the shank of the bolt acting as a dowel, pinning the joint against sideways shear forces. For this reason, many bolts have a plain unt Shearing forces push in one direction at the top, and the opposite direction at the bottom, causing shearing deformation.

A crack or tear may develop in a body from parallel shearing forces pushing in opposite directions at different points of the body. If the forces were aligned and aimed straight into each other, they would pinch or compress the body, rather than tear or crack it. Shearing forces are unaligned forces pushing one part of a body in one specific direction, and another part of the body in the opposite direction.


When the forces are aligned into each other, they are called compression forces.

An example is a deck of cards being pushed one way on the top, and the other at the bottom, causing the cards to slide. Another example is when wind blows at the side of a peaked roof of a home – the side walls experience a force at their top pushing in the direction of the wind, and their bottom in the opposite direction, from the ground or foundation. Nash defines shear force in terms of pl The ISO metric screw threads are the worldwide most commonly used type of general-purpose screw thread.

The “M” designation wstm metric screws indicates the nominal outer diameter of the screw, in millimeters e. ISO metric threads consist of a symmetric V-shaped thread.

The thread depth is 0. An assortment of screws A bolt and a screw A screw is a type of fastener, in some ways similar to a bolt see Differentiation between bolt and screw belowtypically made of metal, and characterized by a helical ridge, known as a male thread external thread.

Screws are used to fasten materials by digging in and wedging into a material when turned, while the thread cuts grooves in the fastened material that may help pull fastened materials together and prevent pull-out.

There are many screws for a variety of materials; those commonly fastened by screws include wood, sheet metal, and plastic. Explanation A screw is a combination of simple machines—it is in essence an inclined plane wrapped around a central shaft, but the inclined plane thread also comes to a sharp edge around the outside, which f56m a wedge as it pushes into the fastened material, and the shaft and helix also form a wedge in the form of the point.

Some screw threads are designed to mate with a complementary thread, known as a female Polycarbonates PC are a group of thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate groups in their chemical structures. Polycarbonates used in engineering are strong, tough materials, and some grades are optically transparent. They are easily worked, molded, and thermoformed. Because of these properties, polycarbonates find many applications.

Products made from polycarbonate can contain trace quantities of the precursor monomer bisphenol A BPA. A balance of useful features, including temperature resistance, impact resistance and optical properties, positions polycarbonates between commodity plastics and engineering plastics. The overall reaction can be written as follows Polyvinyl chloride ;[5] colloquial: PVC is the world’s third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.

PVC comes in two basic forms: The rigid form of PVC is used in construction for pipe and in profile applications such as doors and windows. It is also used in making bottles, non-food packaging, and cards such as bank or membership cards. It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers, the most widely used being phthalates. In this form, it is also used in plumbing, electrical cable insulation, imitation leather, flooring, signage, phonograph records,[8] inflatable products, and many applications where it replaces rubber.

Pure polyvinyl chloride is a white, brittle solid. It is insoluble in alcohol but slightly soluble in tetrahydrofuran. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas. An oil refinery in Mina Al Ahmadi, Kuwait. Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth’s surface. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation, i.

  ASTM D7028 PDF

It consists of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other organic compounds. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, mostly zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure.

Petroleum has mostly been recovered by oil drilling Conversion of units is the conversion between different units of measurement for the same quantity, typically through multiplicative conversion factors. Techniques Process overview The process of conversion depends on the specific situation and the intended purpose. This may be governed by regulation, contract, technical specifications or other published standards. Engineering judgment may include such factors as: The precision and accuracy of measurement and the associated uncertainty of measurement.

The statistical confidence interval or tolerance interval of the initial measurement. The number of significant figures of the measurement. The intended use of the measurement including the engineering tolerances.

Historical definitions of the units and their derivatives used in old measurements; e. Some conversions from one system of units to another need to be exact, without increasing or decreasing the precision of the first measurement. This is sometimes c A list of publisher codes for International Standard Book Numbers with a group code of zero. The group-0 publisher codes are assigned as follows: Publisher number Item number Group identifier Total possible books From To Number of possible publisher codes Books per publisher 2 digits 6 asstm xxxxxx-x xxxxxx-x 20 1, 20, 3 digits 5 digits xxxxx-xxxxxx-xxxxxx-xxxxxx-xxxxxx-xxxxxx-x xxxxx-xxxxxx-xxxxxx-xxxxxx-xxxxxx-xxxxxx-x49, 4 digits 4 digits xxxx-xxxxx-xxxxx-xxxxx-xxxxx-x xxxx-xxxxx-xxxxx-xxxxx-xxxxx-x 1, 10, 15, 5 digits 3 digits xxx-x xxx-x 5, 1, 5, 6 digits 2 digits xx-x xx-x 50, 5, 7 digits 1 digit x-xx-xx-x x-xx-xx-x10 5, For a description of catastrophic injuries that do not apply to the central nervous system, see Major trauma.

A catastrophic injury is asm severe injury to the spine, spinal f568j, or brain,[1] and asstm also include skull or spinal fractures. The National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research in the United States classifies catastrophic injuries based on the three outcomes associated with them: Indirect nonfatal catastrophic injury may occur as a result of systemic failure from exertion during an activity, such as from cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, or dehydration,[4] or a com Nanotoxicology is the study of the toxicity of nanomaterials.

Of the possible hazards, inhalation exposure appears to present the most concern, with animal studies showing pulmonary asstm such as inflammation, fibrosis, and carcinogenicity for some nanomaterials. Skin contact and ingestion exposure are also a concern. Background Nanomaterials have at least one primary dimension of less than nanometers, and often have properties different from those of their bulk components that are technologically useful.

Because nanotechnology is a recent development, the health and safety effects of exposures to nanomaterials, and what levels of exposure may be acceptable, is not yet fully understood. A Shell ff568m station in Hiroshima, Japan Gasoline American English or petrol British English is a transparent petroleum-derived flammable liquid that is used primarily as a asgm in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

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